What are some of the inhibitors to t-PA?

PAI-1, PAI-2, PAI-3, protease nexin, a2-macroglobulin, trypsin inhibitor, and C1 Inhibitor all inhibit tPA. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is the most efficient inhibitor of tPA in plasma. It is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that acts as a pseudo-substrate for its target protease, with which it forms an inactive complex. PAI-1 is synthesized by several cell types including endothelial cells and hepatocytes and is present in platelets, placenta, and serum. The normal concentration range of PAI-1 in plasma is 5-40 mg/l and the normal activity is 0-20 AU/ml.

PAI-2 is a serpin with a higher affinity for u-PA (urinary-type plasminogen activator, or urokinase) than for t-PA. It is often only detectable during pregnancy, specifically in the third trimester.

PAI-3 is also called Protein C inhibitor, and inhibits u-PA and thrombin, and is present in plasma and urine.