Describe the types of plasminogen deficiency. What are the clinical conditions associated with decreased plasminogen levels? With elevated plasminogen levels?
Plasminogen deficiency can be hereditary or acquired. There are two types of hereditary plg deficiency. Hypoplasminogenemia, also called type I, is characterized by a parallel reduction of both plasminogen antigen and activity to about 50% of normal. Dysplasminogenemia, or type II, is characterized by a reduced activity/antigen ratio, meaning that the activity level is more reduced than the antigen level. Hereditary plg deficiency is usually associated with either a thrombotic or a hyperfibrinolytic condition. It has been estimated that type I and II deficiency accounts for 2-3% of unexplained DVT in young patients, and is associated with an increased risk for thrombosis, although just how much of a risk increase is still controversial. Elevated plasminogen levels are sometimes associated with situations such as pregnancy, oral contraceptives, obesity, or hypothyroidism.